Victor Carranza, who fought off Pablo Escobar’s Medellin cocaine cartel, Marxist rebels and rival traders, to achieve a near-monopoly of Colombia’s emerald trade, died of cancer at the age of 77.
What finally claimed the life of Victor Carranza was lung cancer
In the late 1980s, thousands died when Gonzalo Rodriguez Gacha, the Medellin cartel boss, attempted to wrest control of the emerald zone in mountains six hours drive north of Bogota from Carranza, who also survived several attempts to prosecute him for crimes including kidnapping and forming private armies.
“When he ended up monopolizing the emerald business, miraculously he started being presented not as a criminal, but as a man of peace,” Cepeda said yesterday in an interview in his office in Congress.
Carranza, one of Colombia’s biggest landowners, built his fortune after discovering his first emerald mine as a boy in the late 1940s.
“I’ve been fortunate,” he would say. “The emeralds call me.”
The emerald boss later managed the “metamorphosis” of his image to a man of peace, according to his biographer and opposition congressman Ivan Cepeda. Since Carranza became sick, rivals have begun to fight over his empire in the emerald region and in his other zones of influence, including Colombia’s eastern plains, Cepeda said.
The fighting left nearly 5,000 people dead while Carranza amassed a private army, say the authors of a 2012 biography, leftist Rep. Ivan Cepeda and Rev. Javier Giraldo, a Jesuit priest.
Carranza was “the glue” who held Colombia’s emerald business together, Harebottle said today in a phone interview, hours before Carranza’s death. The fall in output is due to “mines having to go deeper and deeper, often below the water table, to access emeralds – thus entering into operating environments that require ever increasing levels of formalized mining and capital investment,” Harebottle said.
In 1998, Carranza was arrested and charged with kidnapping and forming illegal right-wing militias, which prosecutors have blamed for more than 50,000 killings over the past three decades. Colombia’s chief prosecutor at the time, Alfonso Gomez Mendez, told The Associated Press in an interview that he had no doubt Carranza was one of the paramilitaries’ principal creators and backers.
Emerald output fell to 904,000 carats last year, from 3.4 million carats in 2011, according to Colombia’s Mines and Energy Ministry. Harebottle said. Harebottle estimates that the Colombian emerald business is worth less than $100 million per year.
The fall in output is due to “mines having to go deeper and deeper, often below the water table, to access emeralds – thus entering into operating environments that require ever increasing levels of formalized mining and capital investment,” Harebottle said.
The Andean nation is one of the world’s three main emerald- producing nations, alongside Brazil and Zambia. Output has “dropped substantially” in recent years after easily accessible gems became scarce, said Ian Harebottle, chief executive officer of Gemfields Plc. (GEM) in London, which owns an emerald mine in Zambia.