Approximately 25.8 million Americans are suffering from diabetes, and 7.0 million remain undiagnosed. In 2010, about 1.9 million cases were diagnosed in people ages 20 years old and older. By 2050, 1 out of 3 will have diabetes if the trend continues. It is one of the major causes of kidney failure, blindness, foot and leg amputations related to injuries. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States in 2007.
GlaxoSmithKline’s Avandia drug for diabetes mellitus was a blockbuster when it was approved in 1999, but its use has dramatically declined when it was restricted in the U. S. and banned in Europe over concerns that it raises heart-attack risk.
U.S. medical and FDA experts are debating a new review carried out by the British pharmacy giant GSK that supports the previous observation that the active ingredient rosiglitazone in Avandia is not associated with increased cardiovascular mortality.
However, another research has pointed out that the trial was flawed as evidenced by the increase in stroke and heart attack incidence among patients. The Avandia controversy erupted after the study in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2007 found that it raised heart attack by 43 percent. In 2010, Avandia’s use was restricted in the U. S. following the independent expert recommendation.
Factors that link to the development of Diabetes Mellitus
There are so many factors that link to the development of diabetes mellitus, and one is soda consumption. To prove this theory, researchers at the Kanazawa Medical University, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health investigated the link between the consumption of sugar sweetened beverage or SSB and the diet soda to type II diabetes mellitus in Japanese men. A population of 2,037 factory employees participated in the study. Researchers measure the SSB consumption and diet soda with self administered diet history questionnaire. The participants underwent annual medical examinations over a seven-year period. The study included parameters such as hazard ratios with 95 percent confidence intervals. Then, these parameters were adjusted for BMI, family history, and lifestyle, and age.
The results showed that 170 enrollees developed diabetes. Those who consumed 1 serving or more of SSB per day were likely to develop the illness by 35 percent and those who consumed the same amount of diet soda have 70 percent chance of developing diabetes. Diet soda can significantly increase the risk of diabetes, even if it is a zero calorie drink.
Scientists found Proof Linking Diabetes and Psychological Stress
The new study published in the Journal of Psychosomatic Research indicates that the presence of post-traumatic stress is linked to the development of diabetes. At a cohort study, scientists have found that the hormonal stress axis or HPA activation due to chronic stress is a major triggering mechanism for the disease. People suffering from a prolonged stress response syndrome, can stem from an exceptionally catastrophic or threatening nature. Dr Caroline Likaschek from the Institute of Epidemiology II and Professor Johannes Kruse from the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy at the University of Giessen and Marburg are trying to tie the correlation between diabetes and mental stress from mental illness.
The scientists analyzed the data from KORA cohort study, which involved collecting data by glucose tolerance test and standardized survey from the participants. Fifty participants enrolled in the study who suffered from PTSD, 261 additional participants who manifested delayed symptoms of partial mental illness. The study looked at 498 participants with type II diabetes and 333 more with pre-diabetic and metabolic state. The result indicated that there is a significant link between the PTSD and type II diabetes. Pre-diabetic participants showed no signs of correlation between the two illnesses.
Facts about Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is associated with genetics, obesity, family history, and sedentary life. The illness varies by race and ethnicity. The American Indian, Native Alaskan, African American, Hispanic/Latino and Asian-Pacific Islanders are twice as likely to develop the disease. It can be controlled by medication or insulin, and can be prevented by a healthy diet, and regular physical activities.
Written by: Janet Grace Ortigas