Pollen Fossils Reveal Flowering Plants to Have Emerged 100 Million Years Earlier

Pollen fossils reveal flowering plants emerged 100 million years earlier

A new study suggests flowering plants to have emerged 100 million years before previous estimates. The findings were published in the Oct. 1 issue of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science.

Flowering plants (angiosperms) are believed to have evolved from long extinct, gymnosperm vegetation, related to cycads, conifers, Ginkgos and Gnetales. Gymnosperms are seed-producing plant forms that have unenclosed, or “naked,” seeds. This contrasts against flowering plants, which harbor their seeds within an enclosed ovary.

Professor Peter Hochuli, working at the University of Zürich, explained that flowering plants were the final group of plants to have evolved on planet Earth, before going on to discuss their impact on mankind. Without angiosperms, Hochuli explains that the lush, modern ecosystems of today would likely not exist, and neither would humanity.

Were Angiosperms Cretaceous or Triassic in Origin?

The prevailing notion is that flower-like structures first made their emergence during the Cretaceous period, around 130 to 140 million years back, whilst the dinosaurs wandered Timeline showing the transition through the Triassic to the Cretaceous periodour planet. A continuous sequence of fossilized pollen grains derived from flowering plants had been observed, dating back to this period; therefore, it was generally accepted that the first angiosperms materialized during this period.

However, a new group of researchers claim to have identified evidence that calls this estimate into question. Previous approximations have been based around investigation of fossilized plant remains; unfortunately, old fossils are extraordinarily difficult to find for flowering plants, making molecular studies rare and highly inconclusive.

On this basis, a team working at the University of Zürich, Switzerland, performed studies into drilling cores, at two different location in Switzerland. Peter Hochuli, and his colleague Susanne Feist-Burkhardt, discovered pollen grains remarkably similar in appearance to the fossilized pollen from some of the first recorded flowering plants.

Pollen grains are tiny, durable structures that are in abundance; these properties make it far easier to locate fossilized pollen grains than delicate plants or leaves.

Microscopy image of a Flower-like pollen

Microscopy image of a Flower-like pollen, captured by Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt

The crew then used Confocal Laser Microscopy to generate high-resolution imagery of six different forms of collected pollen grain. This form of microscopy enabled scientists to acquire in-focus images of specimen samples, at various depths (optical sectioning). The various images were then aggregated to provide a 3-dimensional reconstruction of the intricate specimens.

The presence of six pollen grain types hints at high diversification between the flowering plants, which were thought to be almost 250 million years old. Based upon these findings, the earliest angiosperms were likely to have dated right back to the Triassic period, suggesting they were approximately 100 million years older than first anticipated.

Angiosperm Evolution

These findings go a long way to solving an ambiguity that has long plagued the minds of the scientific community, who thought it strange that flowering plants were able to dominate Earth in such a short period of time. Even Charles Darwin described the origins of modern angiosperms as an “abominable mystery.”

It’s thought that plants evolved in this manner to include mobile animals in their reproduction. Various plants produced attractive, brightly colored flowers to gain the attention of animals and enable efficient dissemination of their pollen. However, thus far, the researchers remain uncertain as to what conditions could have been imposed upon gymnosperms to potentially spur on the evolution of the flowering plants that dominate today.

During the Triassic period, bees would not have existed. Therefore, the authors posit that various insects may have been responsible for pollination, including beetles.

Other Study Findings

Hochuli and Feist-Burkhardt also performed another study in 2004, which investigated the relationship between pollen, derived from flowering plants. During this research study, the pair reported the finding of pollen grains that were of “angiosperm-like morphologies from marine Middle Triassic sediments of the Boreal Realm…”

Meanwhile, a separate study, performed by Xin Wang and colleagues, entitled Schmeissneria: A missing link to angiosperms?, found fossils with angiospermous qualities, dating back to the Jurassic age. Specifically, they found that a Jurassic genus of plant, called Schmeissneria, might actually be an angiosperm.

Professor Peter Hochuli explained that his team’s study represented a significant step forward in our attempts to understand the origins of flowering plants:

“We believe that even highly cautious scientists will now be convinced that flowering plants evolved long before the Cretaceous.”

Even though the researchers’ microscopy of the pollen fossils suggests flowering plants to have emerged 100 million years earlier than expected, further investigation is needed to cement their conclusions.

By: James Fenner

Frontiers in Plant Science Journal

Journal of Micropalaeontology Source

BMC Evolutionary Biology Journal

Press Release Link

ABC News Link

21 Responses to Pollen Fossils Reveal Flowering Plants to Have Emerged 100 Million Years Earlier

  1. j-j-roberts October 3, 2013 at 8:24 pm

    Or, maybe dino was here much later than you think? Keep looking, maybe you’ll find Dino’s leash and that florist’s digging tools…

  2. Seth Strong October 3, 2013 at 10:22 am

    Fred has faith not facts.

    I think it’s exciting to see evidence that might improve our views of the sequence of life that was around long before us.

    As for the Freds who can’t understand evolution, that’s why scientists take courses. We’ve got mountains of knowledge most people can simply click into if you want to learn more about what we know and what we think we know. Calling it faith isn’t going to help solve any mysteries. Some facts will be overturned by proper review and that’s just fine and awesome science.

  3. Brittany October 3, 2013 at 5:42 am

    I just want to know what impact this is going to have on the PBS show Dinosaur Train!

  4. Fred October 3, 2013 at 2:14 am

    Science….? Evolution is a faith, not facts! Worldwide flood !Believe the Bible or use the paper to turn some tabacco sol.

  5. David Reid October 3, 2013 at 2:13 am

    This makes more sense. A new type of adaption evolves, but it takes a major disruption of the ecosystem (climate change, extinction level event, etc) to damage other long standing competitors and gives thsi new adaption a chance to dominate. Other plants evolved at the time were also well adapted to the environment, so only something that created a hole in the ecosystem would have allowed flowering plant to dominate so quickly. A post meteor strike planet, would have been a good one for seeds enclosed in an out casing to have outsurvived no encased seeds.

  6. ryoung122 October 2, 2013 at 11:25 am

    Uriah Vigil: Quit being so jaded. This find changes the mark of the earliest angiosperms by 75% (from 140 to 245 million years ago). That’s a HUGE amount of time, and is proportionally significant as well. It also fits well with the evolutionary time clock analyses already done, so this represents a potential paradigm shift in the thinking of the emergence of angiosperms.

  7. Uriah Vigil October 2, 2013 at 11:02 am

    A hundred million years earlier? That’s nothing in the evolutionary time scale. Find something new and just add on or subtract a few hundred million years. This is getting ridiculous.


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