Stephen Hawking is claiming there are no black holes. His new theory is based on a new paper he wrote that claims the event horizon of a black hole does not exist. The event horizon of a black hole is fundamentally the point where there is no return when nearing a black hole. When one looks at Einstein’s theory of general relativity, the event horizon is where time and space become so warped by gravity that one would never be able to escape. If a person were to cross the event horizon and continue to move inward, never back out. The problem with the idea of a one-way event horizon is that Hawking now believes it leads to what is known as an information paradox. Hawking has stated that one of the major features which have defined black holes, the total incapability of even light to be able to escape, might not even be true.
The information paradox found its beginnings in thermodynamics, precisely with the second law of thermodynamics. In its most unassuming form it is summarized as heat flowing from hot objects to cold ones. But this law becomes more useful when it is conveyed in terms of entropy. In that way it is specified as the entropy of a system cannot decrease. The majority of people construe entropy as the level of chaos in a system, or the unusable part. That would mean that things always became less useful as time passed. However entropy is actually about the level of data needed to explain a system. A system that is in order is easy to be able to describe because the items within it have simple associations with one another. However, a system in disorder takes more information to explain because it does not have a simple arrangement to its design. Therefore when the second law states that entropy does not decrease, it is saying that physical data of a system cannot decrease. Basically, information simply cannot be devastated.
So, the trouble with event horizons is if an object is thrown inside a black hole, and the entropy would simply disappear. This means that entropy would become smaller, and that breaks the thermodynamics law. Yet this has not taken into account quantum effects, or what is precisely known as Hawking radiation. Stephen Hawking himself first suggested this back in the early 1970’s.
Hawking radiation comes from an idea of the uncertainty principle that is in quantum theory. In this theory it states there are limits to what can possibly be known about an object. Because of such ambiguity, the energy in a system may change unexpectedly, just as long as the average stays constant. Hawking established that close to the event horizon of a black hole, there were pairs of particles which could appear, and that one particle might become trapped within the event horizon. That would reduce the black holes mass marginally, as the other might escape as radiation. It would take away a small amount of the black hole’s energy.
So that Hawking radiation is able to release data from the black hole, the entwined connection between particles has to be broken at the event horizon, so the fleeing particle may become entangled with the information matter that is located inside the black hole. This breaking up of the first entanglement would cause the escaping particles to seem as a powerful type of firewall at the top of the event horizon. This means that anything falling into the black hole would never even be able to make it there. It would instead be vaporized by Hawking radiation when it got to the event horizon. So now it seems that either the physical data of an object would be lost forever when it tumbled into a black hole, or objects would be vaporized before they had the chance of ever going into a black hole.
Hawking has put forward a new theory. He states that instead of gravity warping time and space in an event horizon, the quantum instabilities of Hawking radiation produce a turbulence layer in that area. So a black hole would have an apparent horizon which looks like an event horizon, but lets data leak out. Hawking believes the turbulence would be so enormous that the information going from a black hole would be so jumbled that it would be irretrievable.
If Stephen Hawking proves to be right, then his theory could solve the firewall/information enigma which has overwhelmed theoretical physics for many years. Black holes would still be in existent of course but they would not have any event horizons. Hawking’s presentation has not been reviewed by any of his peers as of this writing, so nothing has been determined as of yet. It is titled Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black Holes.
This is just one man’s idea, but a man whose mind has been equaled by few. Stephen Hawking has claimed that black holes may not exist the way everyone has believed, and so they may not.
By Kimberly Ruble