Research has shown that Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in adults can be caused due to a traumatic experience or witnessing domestic violence during their childhood. In the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2012, approximately 6.3 million allegations of maltreatment towards children were reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies. With the month of April being designated as National Child Abuse Prevention Month, people across the U.S. spread awareness as these numbers are an ugly reminder of the violence endured by children.
It has been determined that when a child witnesses domestic violence, the experience is intense enough to cause PTSD. This occurrence of PTSD can also take place when the child reaches adulthood. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has stated that in homes where violence among partners takes place even when a child is not physically assaulted, they witness 68 to 80 percent of such domestic attacks. Along with violence against the significant other, there is 45 to 60 percent chance of child abuse. The CDC has attributed domestic violence to poor quality of life and premature death among children who are exposed to an upbringing surrounded by violence. Also, the CDC has classified domestic violence as a risk factor to the more common causes of deaths that take place every year in the U.S.
The multitude of domestic violence that victims are exposed to ranges from threats, chronic yelling and arguing, controlling behavior, intimidation, to threats involving weapons, physical threats, threats of suicide or murder, further extending to serious injuries, and fatal assaults. Domestic violence has many forms and always exhibits the destructive tones of control and power. Offenders compulsively and commonly grasp for a replacement of control which they themselves lack. All intimate relationships with behavior patterns that display forcible control of one partner by the other, can be a foreshadowing or signal of abuse. Exposing children to this not only runs the risk of firsthand victimization, but it also affects them in the long-term. Children in danger of this are inevitably emotionally scarred.
Victims are not completely defined by the horrific acts they once experienced. Many grow up to live an overall happy, fulfilled, and passionate lives. While survivors are adaptable, it would not be accurate to call them unbreakable. When children witness or are victims of domestic violence, it gets imprinted into their brain permanently. While growing up, they may experience occurrences of bed wetting, insomnia, and learning difficulties including problems with developing motor, verbal, and cognitive skills. This could lead to self-harm, aggression, anxiety, antisocial behavior, low self-worth, and depression.
While years of therapies, group sessions, psychologists, meditation, and yoga may be comforting, it does not fix the permanent emotional damage. The uncontrollable crying, recurring nightmares, the impulse to go silent and freeze without any warning, and the rage in many adults can be a result of PTSD due to traumatic experiences or witnessing domestic violence during their childhood. The issue of PTSD is bound to continue even after the person has resolved the issue with his or her parents and shares an extremely loving and caring relationship with them after growing up. The problem is that in their sub-conscious mind, the memories of trauma and domestic violence are still very vivid. Today, many adults struggle and fight with these aspects of PTSD with hopes of getting some normalcy or closure. Sadly, it eventually makes them feel as if they are beyond repair and will never be normal again.
Many are working to spread awareness about domestic violence to help people understand some of the psychological probabilities resulting in guilt, excessive worry, fear of abandonment or harm, sadness, compulsive lying, emotional distancing, low frustration tolerance, poor judgment, inability to experience guilt or empathy, fear about their future, and shame about the past. The young parents and working adults from the present generation need to be made aware that even a single act of domestic violence and traumatic experience can lead the child to suffer from PTSD in his or her life.
By Ankur Sinha