Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías born in 28 July 1954. The President of Venezuela, having held that position from 1999 until his death in 2013. He was formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when he became the leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela.
Following his own political ideology of Bolivarianism and “socialism of the 21st century” Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas, Chávez became a career military officer, and after becoming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system, he founded the secretive Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200.
In 1980 he worked towards overthrowing it. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an unsuccessful coup d’état against the Democratic Actiongovernment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1992, for which he was imprisoned. Released from prison after two years, he founded a social democratic political party, the Fifth Republic Movement, and was elected president of Venezuela in 1998.
During his second presidential term, he introduced a system of Bolivarian Missions,Communal Councils and worker-managed cooperatives, as well as a program of land reform, whilst also nationalizing various key industries. On 7 October 2012, Chávez won his country’s presidential election for a fourth time, defeating Henrique Capriles, and was elected for another six-year term.
Allying himself strongly with the Communist governments of Fidel and then Raúl Castro in Cuba and the Socialist governments of Evo Morales in Bolivia, Rafael Correa in Ecuador and Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, his presidency was seen as a part of the socialist “pink tide” sweeping Latin America. He supported Latin American and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in setting up the pan-regional Union of South American Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Bank of the South, and the regional television network TeleSur. Chávez was a highly controversial and divisive figure both at home and abroad.
Since 2011, Chávez has undergone three surgeries to remove cancerous tumors; the Venezuelan president reportedly discovered that he had cancer in June 2011, following a surgery to remove a pelvic abscess. In preparation for his third surgery in December 2012, Chávez acknowledged the severity of the operation as well as the possibility of not being able to continue his service as president, and named Vice President Nicolas Maduro as his successor.