Immune Cell Diversity in the Human Body

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Courtesy of Ben (busy) (Flickr CC0)

The human immune system is diverse, with many distinct cell types scattered across the entire body. However, little is understood regarding the fine-grained divergences in these cell classifications.

Domínguez Conde examined the gene expression profile using the single-cell genomics of 300,000 individuals and extracted adult organ donors from 16 different tissues in 12 deceased adults.

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Courtesy of NIH Image Gallery (Flickr CC0)

While using the CellTypist classification tool, scientists identified the in-depth data analysis insights into how the immune system adjusts to functioning in different organ contexts.

Immune cells play an essential part in health and disease, yet most human immunity studies focus on blood-derived cells. Immune cells adjust to the microenvironments to achieve specific characteristics and functional specialization. Dissecting these molecular transformations through the cell’s systematic examination across the human body will change people’s knowledge of the human immune system.

Scientists have gathered high-quality data for 330,000 immune cells by conducting a single-cell RNA cycle and paired VDJ for T and B cell receptors. They designed the CellTypist-based framework to build a thorough immune cell type reference database by consolidating public datasets.

The data from multiple tissues and individuals noticed 101 immune populations and conducted comprehensive cross-tissue comparisons. The macrophages depicted prominent tissue-restricted segments and detected some convergent features in bone marrow, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes.

Heterogeneity was also observed in migratory cell transformations and tissue-specific distributions of memory populations within adaptive resistant lineages. Plasma cells have limited tissue distribution, while memory B cells are widely distributed.

Researchers were able to expand their knowledge of human immunity functions. Despite their crucial role in health and disease, scientists’ understanding of immune cells within human tissues is limited. But, by using the CellTypist tool, they can provide details to indicate the tissue-specific characteristics by leveraging a standard reference dataset, antigen receptor sequencing, and tissue-integrated expression analysis.

Written by Janet Grace Ortigas
Edited by Sheena Robertson

Sources:

Science:
Cross-tissue immune cell analysis reveals tissue-specific features in humans
Stem Cell: Cross-tissue immune cell analysis reveals tissue-specific features in humans
National Library of Science: Cross-tissue immune cell analysis reveals tissue-specific features in humans

Featured and Top Image Courtesy of Ben (busy)‘s Flickr Page – Creative Commons License
Inset Image by lacedolalab, Weill Cornell Medicine, NYC Courtesy of NIH Image Gallery’s Flickr Page – Creative Commons Licence

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