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According to a novel computer model created at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien), the Universe could be a hologram, altering the way scientists and other humans see life in real-time. If this finding proves to be true, people could possibly be living in only two spatial dimensions, rather than three. Humans live in a three-dimensional world, meaning one experiences length, width, and depth. Though, the mathematical model says that according to the holographic principle, people may only be experiencing the illusion of three dimensions through a two-dimensional hologram.
The holographic principle states that the whole of the Universe can be depicted as a two-dimensional structure laid on the cosmological horizon, with the third dimension as a result of energy dissipation and entropy. For example, on some credit cards there are holograms; the two dimensions of length and width on the hologram are able to be seen. Though, the effects of the hologram makes one perceive an illusion that it is a three-dimensional depiction that is not really there.
To test this wild theory that the Universe may be a hologram, quantum physicists created many gravitational theories that are based on a theory of flat space. One of the researchers stated when quantum gravity on flat spaces creates holographic descriptions based on standard quantum hypotheses, the physical means of a holographic universe can be proven using the mathematical model. This means that they can model the same effects quantum gravity has in the three-dimensional and two-dimensional universe. Although this theory has only been mathematically tested, new calculations have shown that a universe with two dimensions could project a holographic appearance of a three-dimensional world if space-time was flat.
According to scientists, quantum mechanics and quantum enlargement make up the gravitational theory. Though, it is impossible to individually map particles due to quantum entanglement. This is the quantum phenomenon that two particles are in two places at the same exact time. These “two” particles entangle between themselves at the quantum level to create a single particle. This happens even if the particles are light years away from each other, or technically in other dimensions. The level of entanglement in a system and the measurement of it is known as entropy of entanglement. The degrees of quantum entanglement, when measured by the model in both a two-dimensional and three-dimensional model, were found to be nearly identical. Therefore, gravitational theory in a two-dimensional universe could be possible.
Daniel Grumiller, a researcher at TU Wien, stated that their new calculations reinforce their presumptions that the holographic principle can be explained when using flat spaces. Therefore, he said the calculations are evidence for the validity of this notion in the Universe, whether it be the three-dimensional or a possible two-dimensional one. If scientists are correct in some of their assumptions that the Universe is, in fact, a two-dimensional hologram, it would prove that the geometry of the Universe is much more different than they thought due to the new studies of quantum mechanics.
By Alex Lemieux
The Hoops News
Photo by Argonne National Laboratory – Creativecommons Flickr License